Scientists from all over the world have helped the human race and its society to develop from the age of stones and caves to the age of technology and development. They have contributed so much to society so that we could understand the phenomenon and reason for our existence. Their obsession for science had made them discover the facts and truths of the universe and invent new things and technology to make our life easier and civilized. Their quest for knowledge and their revelations had often put their lives in danger. The orthodox section of the society does not easily accept any changes in their old customs and doesn’t like to be challenged in their beliefs. Thus, the new contrasting theories of the scientists were not generally welcomed and they were tortured and burnt alive by the people. Even then they did not flinch in their efforts and continued their research and hard work and proved themselves to the world.
Aristotle was a Greek scientist and philosopher of the ancient age. He was a student of Plato and a tutor to the Alexander the Great. He made important contributions in almost every aspect including physics, metaphysics, zoology, biology, poetry, music, theater, ethics and logic. His contributions were long lasting which are still studied. He is known to be “The Philosopher” to the Arabians, and “The First Teacher” to the westerns. Aristotle vast writings were composed of approximately 200 works, out of which only 31 survive today. His researches were very influential in the development of science over many years.
9. Galileo Galilei
Galileo was an Italian Astronomer, Naturalist and Mathematician whose contributions to the development of science include astronomy, strength of material, mathematics, philosophy and physics behind motion of objects. He invented an advanced telescope of his time that helped him observe moons of Jupiter, sunspots, phases of Venus and rings of Saturn. Galileo also helped inventing an improved compass and other military instruments. Galileo is known as the father of the observational astronomy, father of physics and father of science.
8. Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin was one of the most influential scientists of all time. His book “Origin of Species”, when published in 1859, turned the biology upside down. In his book, he explained that all species of life have evolved from common ancestors by a process, which he called natural selection. It took over twenty years for him, to collect the evidence to draw out the conclusion, which he published in his book. His theory that evolution occurs was accepted by general public during his lifetime but the process of natural selection was accepted by late 1920’s. Charles Darwin is regarded as one of the finest genius scientist in his field of geology and natural history.
7. Leonardo Da Vinci
Most of us know Leonardo Da Vinci primarily as a painter, for his famous painting of Mona Lisa, but he was also a mathematician, architect, musician, inventor, engineer, writer and geologist. He is also referred as Renaissance man, a man whose expertise expands in significant number of different areas. He conceptualized the shape of helicopter, tanker, calculator double hull. Only few of his designs were feasible during his lifetime like machine for testing the tensile strength of a wire and automated bobbin winder, which entered the industrial world unheralded. He also contributed in the fields of anatomy, civil engineering, optics and hydrodynamics.
6. Marie Curie
Marie Curie if the first woman to win a Nobel Prize and the only women to win Nobel prize in two fields. She was awarded Nobel Prize in Physics, 1903 shared with her husband Pierre Curie and physicist Henri Becquerel, for the discovery of natural radioactivity. In 1911, she was again awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for determining the atomic weight of radium. She also discovered plutonium and radium, researched on them extensively, proposed a theory on radioactivity and discovered the method of segregating radioactive isotopes. Her daughter, Irene Joliet Curie and son in law Frederic Joliot Curie was also a Nobel laureate. She died in 1934 due to aplastic anemia, brought on by exposure to radiation of radioactive elements.
5. Thomas Alva Edison
Edison was a great scientist and philosopher who had more than 1000 patents under his name which covers many innovations and minor improvements in wide range of fields including primary storage batteries, telecommunication, mining, cement technology, sound recording and electric power. He is best known for the development of the electric bulb and phonograph. He strongly opposed the AC current which Tesla believed to be much more useful and efficient. His invention of phonograph sound recording system got him a name “Wizard of Menlo Park”. He worked for more than 20 hours every day. He was also a prominent businessman, and his company produced and marketed his inventions to the public.
4. Michael Faraday
Born in England, 1971, Faraday received very less formal education during his early life. He could not attend school because of financial hardship and became book binder. He taught himself to read and write. He discovered the magnetic field around a current carrying conductor, and electromagnetic induction which lay the basis for the concept of electromagnetic field in physics. He invented the electromagnetic induction motor, which still is the basis of electromagnetic rotary devices. As a chemist also, his contributions are great. He discovered benzene, invented early form of Bunsen burner, the system of oxidation number and researched the chlorine. It was only due to his efforts and contributions that electricity became practical for use in science and technology.
3. Nikola Tesla
Nikola Tesla was a Serbian American inventor, mechanical engineer, electrical engineer and physicist. He is best known for his contributions in electric motor, earthquake machine, radio wave recorder, remote control, transistors, cryogenic engineering, and hydroelectricity plant. He was a geek, who could recite a whole book after reading it only one time, make a device just having a look at it and could speak 8 different languages Tesla did not expose many of his inventions which later were developed by many scientists. He also researched on AC power supply and the modern power supply systems, owe a lot to his brilliance. He is regarded as greatest scientist of the 19th and 20th century.
2. Sir Isaac Newton
Famous for the “Three Laws of motion”, and theory of gravitation, Newton was a man of versatile quality. He was a physicist, mathematician, astronomer, philosopher and alchemist and in each of these qualities, his contributions are revolutionary. Newton explained the movement of celestial bodies with the help of theory of gravitation. His work also includes a great contribution in the field of optics and invention of the reflecting telescope, with which he studied Newton, studied light and stars. His contribution in mathematics involves study of binomial theory, where he discovered infinitesimal calculus. Renowned as the father of mechanics, physics could not be thought without mentioning the laws and theories given by Newton.
1. Albert Einstein
“The Man of the Century”, is considered to be the most influential scientist of the modern physics. He was awarded Nobel Prize in Physics, 1921, for explaining the photoelectric effect. In the year 1905, which is known to be his miracle year, he published 4 papers which changed the way the universe was observed including the explanation that light has a particle as well as wave nature. He gave the most famous and revolutionary theory of relativity and energy mass equivalence equation, E=(mc)squared. Because of his vast knowledge and contributions , he has become synonymous with genius. In 1999 Time magazine names him as the person of the century.